The MacBook Pro (sometimes abbreviated MBP)1 is a line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006 by Apple Inc., now in its third generation. Replacing the PowerBook G4, the MacBook Pro was the second model to be announced in the Apple?Intel transition, after the iMac. It is the high-end model of the MacBook family and is currently produced with 13- and 15-inch screens. A 17-inch version was available for sale in April 2006.
The first generation MacBook Pro appeared externally similar to the PowerBook G4, but used the Intel Core processors instead of PowerPC G4 chips. The 15-inch model was introduced first, in January 2006; the 17-inch model followed in April. Both received several updates and Core 2 Duo processors later that year.
The computer's second generation, known as the "unibody" model, has a more tapered design and a casing made from a single block of aluminum. It debuted in October 2008 as the 15-inch MacBook Pro and the 13-inch aluminum unibody MacBook. The following January brought the design to the 17-inch model, along with the built-in battery that joined the rest of the MacBook Pro line in June, during which Apple also absorbed the unibody 13" Macbook into the MacBook Pro line. Subsequent updates brought upgraded Intel Core i5 and i7 processors and introduced Intel's Thunderbolt technology.
A laptop combines the components, inputs, outputs and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, speakers, a keyboard, pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad), a processor and memory into a single unit. Most 2016-era laptops also have integrated webcams and built-in microphones. The device can be powered either from a rechargeable battery or by mains electricity from an AC adapter. Laptops are diverse devices and specialised kinds, such as rugged notebooks for use in construction or military applications or convertible computers, have been optimized for specific uses. The hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity significantly vary between different types, makes, and models.
Portable computers, which later developed into modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountancy, or for travelling sales representatives. As portable computers became closer to the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes.
Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs.46 Physical portability allows a laptop to be used in many places? not only at home and at the office, but also during commuting and flights, in coffee shops, in lecture halls and libraries, at clients' locations or at a meeting rooms, etc. The portability feature offers several distinct advantages:
Productivity: Using a laptop in places where a desktop PC cannot be used can help employees and students to increase their productivity on work or school tasks. For example, an office worker reading her work e-mails during an hour-long commute by train, or a student doing her homework at the university coffee shop during a break between lectures.
Immediacy: Carrying a laptop means having instant access to information, personal and work files. This allows better collaboration between coworkers or students, as a laptop can be flipped open to look at a report, document, spreadsheet or presentation anytime and anywhere.
Up-to-date information: If a person has more than one desktop PC, a problem of synchronization arises: changes made on one computer are not automatically propagated to the others. There are ways to resolve this problem, including physical transfer of updated files (using a USB flash memory stick or CDRs) or using synchronization software over the Internet. However, transporting a single laptop to both locations avoids the problem entirely, as the files exist in a single location and are always up-to-date.
Connectivity: In the 2010s, a proliferation of Wi-Fi wireless networks and cellular broadband data services (HSDPA, EVDO and others) in many urban centers combined with a near-ubiquitous support by modern laptops48 means that a laptop can have easy Internet and local network connectivity while remaining mobile. Wi-Fi networks and laptop programs are especially widespread at university campuses.
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