The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron.
Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead. For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting.
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Pressuretrols to control the steam pressure in the boiler..Boilers generally have 2 or 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting the upper limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the amount of fire. Safety valve: It is used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler. Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, also known as a sight glass, water gauge or water column. Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on the bottom of a boiler.As the name implies, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out. Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously.
Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts.Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam ? a condition known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water. Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the steam can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain. Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water.
No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the temperature of the makeup water.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler