Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing's not limited to these applications.1 Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.2 Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade. In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation. The word derives from the Latin plumbum for lead, as the first effective pipes used in Roman era were lead pipesŹródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing
Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people.6 Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.
Earlier, the waste disposal system had merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river.Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools. Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and partially purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960.
After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings. The use of lead for potable water declined sharply after World War II because of increased awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning.At this time, copper piping was introduced as a better and safer alternative to lead pipes. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing.