Plastic pipe is a tubular section, or hollow cylinder, made of plastic.
It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members. There are three basic types of plastic pipes: Solid wall pipe Extruded pipes consisting of one layer of a homogeneous matrix of thermoplastic material which is ready for use in a pipeline Structured wall pipe Structured-wall pipes and fittings are products which have an optimized design with regard to material usage to achieve the physical, mechanical and performance requirements.
Barrier pipe is used, for example, to provide additional protection for the contents passing through the pipe (particularly drinking water) from aggressive chemicals or other pollution when laid in ground contaminated by previous use. Most plastic pipe systems are made from thermoplastic materials.
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes.For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5 Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles.
Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam.When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour.
Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion.
At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation.At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life.Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber.Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings. 6 A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous.If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves.Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace.
The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety
Plumbing code is a code that provides regulations for the design, installation and inspection of building plumbing and sanitary systems. In the U.S., jurisdictions enact their own codes, some of which are based upon model plumbing codes.1 The most widely adopted plumbing code in the United States is the International Plumbing Code published by the International Code Council (ICC). This code is also used as the basis for the plumbing code of some other countries.Another model plumbing code published in the United States is the Uniform Plumbing Code published by IAPMO.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing_code.