Plastic pipe is a tubular section, or hollow cylinder, made of plastic.
It is usually, but not necessarily, of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow ? liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members. There are three basic types of plastic pipes: Solid wall pipe Extruded pipes consisting of one layer of a homogeneous matrix of thermoplastic material which is ready for use in a pipeline Structured wall pipe Structured-wall pipes and fittings are products which have an optimized design with regard to material usage to achieve the physical, mechanical and performance requirements. Structured Wall Pipes are tailor made solutions of piping systems, for a variety of applications and in most cases developed in cooperation with users Barrier pipe Pipe incorporating a flexible metallic layer as the middle of three bonded layers. Barrier pipe is used, for example, to provide additional protection for the contents passing through the pipe (particularly drinking water) from aggressive chemicals or other pollution when laid in ground contaminated by previous use. Most plastic pipe systems are made from thermoplastic materials.
All of these activities can be carried out by a team of plumbers working in a nearby factory water and sanitation.
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes.
For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5 Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles.
When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour.Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber.
Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.6 A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous.
If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves.Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace.