Chemical drain cleaners can be in solid or liquid form that are readily available through hardware stores, though some (primarily acidic ones) are intended for use by licensed plumbers.1 Alkaline drain openers Bottles of alkaline drain cleaners containing sodium hydroxide can dissolve greases and hair. Alkaline drain openers primarily contain sodium hydroxide and some may contain potassium hydroxide.
The intent of this foaming action is to coat the inside of the drain pipe to dislodge more of the substances that form the clog. Solid formulations of corrosive alkaline drain cleaners in the form of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide granules can provide more concentrated effective ingredients.Some patented, solid-formula cleaners add aluminum turnings that react with the solid hydroxide in water to heat the caustic mixture to a boil. Alkaline drain openers can dissolve hair (containing proteins) and fats inside pipes via alkaline hydrolysis of amide and ester respectively: RCONH2(amide or proteins)+ OH? ? NH3 + RCOO? RCO2R?(ester or fats)+ OH? ? R'OH + RCOO?Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drain_cleaner
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes.
For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5 Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles.
When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour.
Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion.
At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation.At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber.
Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves.
Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace.The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claimsŹródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety.