Water supply and sanitation has been a primary logistical challenge since the dawn of civilization.
Where water resources or infrastructure or sanitation systems are insufficient for the population, people fall prey to disease, dehydration, and in extreme cases, death. Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near major rivers.Over the millennia, technology has dramatically increased the distances across which water can be relocated, but the availability of clean and fresh water remains a limiting factor on the size and density of population centers, and is expected to remain so into the foreseeable future.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation
Hand auger / hand spinner Hand augers are useful for clearing sink and bathtub drains.They are unsuitable for sending through flush toilets, because the wire might damage the bowl; also, flush toilets have relatively large drain pipes in which the narrow snake can be become tangled. (A 1?4-inch cable, for example, should never be used in a drain with a calibre of more than two inches.) Closet auger / toilet auger The closet auger (named after water closet) feeds a relatively short auger through a hook-shaped length of metal tubing.
This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality.
Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself.
They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century.These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood.
Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure.About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe.