At their simplest, moldings are a means of applying light- and dark-shaded stripes to a structural objects without having to change the material or apply pigments.
Adding a small overhanging horizontal molding to the surface of the wall will introduce a dark horizontal shadow below the molding, which in consequence is called a fillet molding.
This vocabulary is at the core of both classical architecture and Gothic architecture. Decorative moldings have been made of wood, stone and cement.Recently moldings made of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as a core with a cement-based protective coating have become popular. These moldings have environmental, health and safety concerns that were investigated by Doroudiani et alŹródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molding_(decorative)#Theory
In this technique uses a specialized, gypsum plaster kind of carving unique patterns and forms.There's no denying that this is the kind of finish walls for a bit more demanding people.
Astragal ? A semi-circular molding attached to one of a pair of especially fire doors to cover the air gap where the doors meet. Baguette ? Thin, half-round molding, smaller than an astragal, sometimes carved, and enriched with foliages, pearls, ribbands, laurels, etc.When enriched with ornaments, it was also called chapelet.2 Bandelet ? Any little band or flat molding, which crowns a Doric architrave.
A "speed base" makes use of a base "cap molding" set on top of a plain 1" thick board, however there are hundreds of baseboard profiles. Baton ? see Torus Batten or board and batten ? a symmetrical molding that is placed across a joint where two parallel panels or boards meet Bead molding ? narrow, half-round convex molding, when repeated forms reeding Beading or bead ? molding in the form of a row of half spherical beads, larger than pearling Other forms: Bead and leaf, bead and reel, bead and spindle Beak ? Small fillet molding left on the edge of a larmier, which forms a canal, and makes a kind of pendant.2 See also: chin-beak Bed molding ? a narrow molding used at the junction of a wall and ceiling.
Bed moldings can be either sprung or plain.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molding_(decorative)#Types.