The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable cars was debuted by Ransom Olds in 1901 at his Oldsmobile factory located in Lansing, Michigan and based upon stationary assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills, England, in 1802. The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.S.by Thomas Blanchard in 1821, at the Springfield Armory in Springfield, Massachusetts.33 This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1913 with the world's first moving assembly line for cars at the Highland Park Ford Plant. As a result, Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen-minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing productivity eightfold, while using less manpower (from 12.5-man-hours to 1 hour 33 minutes).34 It was so successful, paint became a bottleneck.Only Japan Black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1913, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark, "any color as long as it's black".34 In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay.34 Ford's complex safety procedures?especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about?dramatically reduced the rate of injury.The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries.The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States.
The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car#Mass_production
Diesel Ignition Process Diesel engines and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines, rely solely on heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression level that occurs is usually twice or more than a gasoline engine..Diesel engines take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, spray a small quantity of diesel fuel into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite.
HCCI type engines take in both air and fuel, but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process, due to higher pressures and heat.This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more susceptible to cold-starting issues, although they run just as well in cold weather once started.Light duty diesel engines with indirect injection in automobiles and light trucks employ glowplugs (or other pre-heating: see Cummins ISB#6BT) that pre-heat the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce no-start conditions in cold weather.Most diesels also have a battery and charging system; nevertheless, this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical components and accessories.Most new engines rely on electrical and electronic engine control units (ECU) that also adjust the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
Other systems are also usedOn its bottom, the sump contains an oil intake covered by a mesh filter which is connected to an oil pump then to an oil filter outside the crankcase, from there it is diverted to the crankshaft main bearings and valve train.
The crankcase contains at least one oil gallery (a conduit inside a crankcase wall) to which oil is introduced from the oil filter.
The main bearings contain a groove through all or half its circumference; the oil enters to these grooves from channels connected to the oil gallery.The crankshaft has drillings which take oil from these grooves and deliver it to the big end bearings.All big end bearings are lubricated this way.A single main bearing may provide oil for 0, 1 or 2 big end bearings.
A similar system may be used to lubricate the piston, its gudgeon pin and the small end of its connecting rod; in this system, the connecting rod big end has a groove around the crankshaft and a drilling connected to the groove which distributes oil from there to the bottom of the piston and from then to the cylinder. Other systems are also used to lubricate the cylinder and piston.
The connecting rod may have a nozzle to throw an oil jet to the cylinder and bottom of the piston.That nozzle is in movement relative to the cylinder it lubricates, but always pointed towards it or the corresponding piston. Typically a forced lubrication systems have a lubricant flow higher than what is required to lubricate satisfactorily, in order to assist with cooling.
Specifically, the lubricant system helps to move heat from the hot engine parts to the cooling liquid (in water-cooled engines) or fins (in air-cooled engines) which then transfer it to the environment.The lubricant must be designed to be chemically stable and maintain suitable viscosities within the temperature range it encounters in the engine.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine