In the United States, electricians are divided into two primary categories: linemen, who work on electric utility company distribution systems at higher voltages, and wiremen, who work with the lower voltages utilized inside buildings.
Apprentices in the US and Canada are working to learn the electrical trade.They generally take several hundred hours of classroom instruction and are contracted to follow apprenticeship standards for a period of between three and six years, during which time they are paid as a percentage of the Journeyman's pay. Journeymen are electricians who have completed their Apprenticeship and who have been found by the local, State, or National licensing body to be competent in the electrical trade.
Other specialty areas are marine electricians, research electricians and hospital electricians."Electrician" is also used as the name of a role in stagecraft, where electricians are tasked primarily with hanging, focusing, and operating stage lighting.
In this context, the Master Electrician is the show's chief electrician.Although theater electricians routinely perform electrical work on stage lighting instruments and equipment, they are not part of the electrical trade and have a different set of skills and qualifications from the electricians that work on building wiring. In the film industry and on a television crew the head electrician is referred to as a Gaffer. Electrical contractors are businesses that employ electricians to design, install, and maintain electrical systems. Contractors are responsible for generating bids for new jobs, hiring tradespeople for the job, providing material to electricians in a timely manner, and communicating with architects, electrical and building engineers, and the customer to plan and complete the finished product. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrician#Terminology
Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards.Regulations may be established by city, county, provincial/state or national legislation, usually by adopting a model code (with or without local amendments) produced by a technical standards-setting organisation, or by a national standard electrical code. Electrical codes arose in the 1880s with the commercial introduction of electrical power.
States, counties or cities often include the NEC in their local building codes by reference along with local differences.
The NEC is modified every three years.
The CSA also produces the Canadian Electrical Code, the 2006 edition of which references IEC 60364 (Electrical Installations for Buildings) and states that the code addresses the fundamental principles of electrical protection in Section 131.
The Canadian code reprints Chapter 13 of IEC 60364, but there are no numerical criteria listed in that chapter to assess the adequacy of any electrical installation. Although the US and Canadian national standards deal with the same physical phenomena and broadly similar objectives, they differ occasionally in technical detail.
The standard is mandatory in both New Zealand and Australia; therefore, all electrical work covered by the standard must comply. In European countries, an attempt has been made to harmonise national wiring standards in an IEC standard, IEC 60364 Electrical Installations for Buildings.Hence national standards follow an identical system of sections and chapters.
However, this standard is not written in such language that it can readily be adopted as a national wiring code.Neither is it designed for field use by electrical tradesmen and inspectors for testing compliance with national wiring standards.
By contrast, national codes, such as the NEC or CSA C22.1, generally exemplify the common objectives of IEC 60364, but provide specific rules in a form that allows for guidance of those installing and inspecting electrical systems. The international standard wire sizes are given in the IEC 60228 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission.
Building wiring is the electrical wiring and associated devices such as switches, meters and light fittings used in buildings or other structures.
Electrical wiring uses insulated conductors. Wires and cables are rated by the circuit voltage, temperature and environmental conditions (moisture, sunlight, oil, chemicals) in which they can be used, and their maximum current.
Wiring safety codes vary by country, and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is attempting to standardise wiring amongst member countries.Colour codes are used to distinguish line, neutral and earth (ground) wires. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_wiring.