In the United States, electricians are divided into two primary categories: linemen, who work on electric utility company distribution systems at higher voltages, and wiremen, who work with the lower voltages utilized inside buildings.
Wiremen are generally trained in one of five primary specialties: commercial, residential, light industrial, industrial, and low-voltage wiring, more commonly known as Voice-Data-Video, or VDV.
Other sub-specialties such as control wiring and fire-alarm may be performed by specialists trained in the devices being installed, or by inside wiremen. Electricians are trained to one of three levels: Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Electrician.Apprentices in the US and Canada are working to learn the electrical trade.
They have considerable skills troubleshooting wiring problems, installing wiring in existing buildings, and making repairs.Construction electricians primarily focus on larger projects, such as installing all new electrical system for an entire building, or upgrading an entire floor of an office building as part of a remodeling process.
Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards.
Many conflicting standards existed for the selection of wire sizes and other design rules for electrical installations. The first electrical codes in the United States originated in New York in 1881 to regulate installations of electric lighting.Since 1897 the US National Fire Protection Association, a private non-profit association formed by insurance companies, has published the National Electrical Code (NEC). States, counties or cities often include the NEC in their local building codes by reference along with local differences. The NEC is modified every three years. It is a consensus code considering suggestions from interested parties.
The Canadian code reprints Chapter 13 of IEC 60364, but there are no numerical criteria listed in that chapter to assess the adequacy of any electrical installation. Although the US and Canadian national standards deal with the same physical phenomena and broadly similar objectives, they differ occasionally in technical detail.As part of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) program, US and Canadian standards are slowly converging toward each other, in a process known as harmonisation. In Germany, DKE (the German Commission for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies of DIN and VDE) is the organisation responsible for the promulgation of electrical standards and safety specifications. DIN VDE 0100 is the German wiring regulations document harmonised with IEC 60364. In the United Kingdom, wiring installations are regulated by the Institution of Engineering and Technology Requirements for Electrical Installations: IEE Wiring Regulations, BS 7671: 2008, which are harmonised with IEC 60364.
The 17th edition (issued in January 2008) includes new sections for microgeneration and solar photovoltaic systems.
The first edition was published in 1882. In Australia and New Zealand, the AS/NZS 3000 standard, commonly known as the "wiring rules", specifies requirements for the selection and installation of electrical equipment, and the design and testing of such installations.The standard is mandatory in both New Zealand and Australia; therefore, all electrical work covered by the standard must comply. In European countries, an attempt has been made to harmonise national wiring standards in an IEC standard, IEC 60364 Electrical Installations for Buildings. Hence national standards follow an identical system of sections and chapters.
However, this standard is not written in such language that it can readily be adopted as a national wiring code.
Neither is it designed for field use by electrical tradesmen and inspectors for testing compliance with national wiring standards.By contrast, national codes, such as the NEC or CSA C22.1, generally exemplify the common objectives of IEC 60364, but provide specific rules in a form that allows for guidance of those installing and inspecting electrical systems. The international standard wire sizes are given in the IEC 60228 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission.
Building wiring is the electrical wiring and associated devices such as switches, meters and light fittings used in buildings or other structures.
Colour codes are used to distinguish line, neutral and earth (ground) wires.