The popularity of laptops is understandable due to their functionality and mobility. Because laptops are smaller than standard computers, iIt is something much more susceptible to damage - if you pour a cup of coffee, the risk of damage to the entire laptop is enormous. If you pour a cup of coffee on a desktop computer keyboard, you have to replace a keyboard - no need extra help. Laptop can accidentally drop it on the floor, it can be thrown off the desk by a cat, or child. Desktops due to their size are less susceptible to mechanical damage. A very important feature of laptops is their portability, which means that it should be fairly light. Behind this, however, it does not go design - lightweight plastic casing is not sufficiently robust. Servicing these devices is much more expensive and not count on the manufacturer's warranty - it does not cover mechanical damage.
A laptop combines the components, inputs, outputs and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, speakers, a keyboard, pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad), a processor and memory into a single unit. Most 2016-era laptops also have integrated webcams and built-in microphones. The device can be powered either from a rechargeable battery or by mains electricity from an AC adapter. Laptops are diverse devices and specialised kinds, such as rugged notebooks for use in construction or military applications or convertible computers, have been optimized for specific uses. The hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity significantly vary between different types, makes, and models.
Portable computers, which later developed into modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountancy, or for travelling sales representatives. As portable computers became closer to the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes.
A personal computer is a general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities and original sale price make it useful for individuals, and is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer time-sharing models that allowed larger, more expensive minicomputer and mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time.
Software applications for most personal computers include, but are not limited to, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, web browsers and e-mail clients, digital media playback, games and many personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. A personal computer may be a laptop computer or a desktop computer running an operating system such as Windows, Linux (and the various operating systems based on it), or Macintosh OS.
Early computer owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, which even did not include an operating system. The very earliest microcomputers, equipped with a front panel, required hand-loading of a bootstrap program to load programs from external storage (paper tape, cassettes, or eventually diskettes). Before very long, automatic booting from permanent read-only memory became universal. Today's users have access to a wide range of commercial software, freeware and free and open-source software, which are provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Software for personal computers, such as applications and video games, are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.12
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Windows. Popular alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems include Apple's OS X and free open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux and BSD. AMD provides the major alternative to Intel's processors.
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